Substrates with four different nanotube modifications have been prepared and their electron transport properties measured. Two modification techniques were compared; covalent chemical attachment of both single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes to transparent conductive (fluorine doped tin oxide) glass surfaces and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth of both single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes on highly doped conductive silicon wafers. These carbon nanotube modified substrates were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and substrates with nanotubes grown via CVD have a much higher density of nanotubes than substrates prepared using chemical attachment. Raman spectroscopy was used to verify that nanotube growth or attachment was successful. The covalent chemical attachment of nanotubes was found to increase substrate electron transfer substantially compared to that observed for the bare substrate. Nanotube growth also enhanced substrate conductivity but the effect is smaller than that observed for covalent attachment, despite a lower nanotube density in the attachment case. In both modification techniques, attachment and growth, single-walled carbon nanotubes were found to have superior electron transfer properties. Finally, solar cells were constructed from the nanotube modified substrates and the photoresponse from the different substrates was compared showing that chemically attached single-walled nanotubes led to the highest power generation.