Comparison of the Clinical and Functional Outcomes Following 3- and 4-Corner Fusions

Harvinder Singh, J Joseph, Joideep Phadnis, Gregory Bain

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    5 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose To explore the clinical and functional outcomes of 3-corner fusion (3CF) for stage 2 and 3 scapholunate advanced collapse and scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse. We compared the results with 4-corner fusion (4CF) using a recent published report. Methods Twelve patients (8 men and 4 women) who had a 3CF, mean age 60 years (range, 34-75 y) were reviewed in clinic more than 1 year after surgery. Subjective outcome measures included the Michigan Hand Questionnaire and Patient Evaluation Measure. Objective outcome measures included range of motion with a flexible electrogoniometer and grip strength measured with a digital dynamometer. The results were compared using a recent report of 24 patients (17 men and 7 women) with a 4CF, mean age 55 years (range, 34-68 y) assessed with similar techniques. Results The patients receiving 3CF had better subjective scores with the Michigan Hand Questionnaire, including the sub-scores for activities of daily living and satisfaction. The radioulnar arc was greater after the 3CF than after the 4CF. Circumduction of the 3CF was more like a normal wrist than the 4CF. This included having faster and smoother motion, with an axis of circumduction closer to the normal wrist. Peak grip strength was similar after either a 3CF or 4CF but grip strength in the 3CF was 82% of the contralateral wrist compared with 59% for the 4CF. Conclusions The 3CF provided better patient-rated scores and the arc of wrist motion was more extended, with greater ulnar deviation. Motion was smoother and more closely replicated the normal axis and functional motion of the wrist. Type of study/level of evidence Therapeutic III.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1117-1123
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Hand Surgery-American Volume
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015


    • 4-corner fusion
    • arthrodesis
    • function
    • range of motion
    • Three-corner fusion

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