Comparisons on factors affecting residents fulfilling self-determination in ethno-specific and mainstream nursing homes: a qualitative study

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Abstract

Background: Studies revealed that supporting residents fulfilling self-determination is positively associated with their health, wellbeing and quality of life. Cross-cultural care poses significant challenges for nursing home residents to fulfil their self-determination in control of own care and maintaining meaningful connections with others. The aim of the study was to compare factors affecting residents fulfilling self-determination in ethno-specific and mainstream nursing homes. 

Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was applied to the study. Culturally competent care and person-centred care were employed as guiding frameworks. Individual interviews or a focus group with residents and family members were conducted to collect data. 

Results: In total, 29 participants participated in the study. Three main themes were identified: communicating needs and preferences; mastering own care; and maintaining meaningful relationships. Each theme includes sub-themes that detail similarities and differences of factors affecting residents fulfilling self-determination in the two type nursing homes. Findings indicate that residents from both types of nursing homes experienced challenges to communicate their care needs and preferences in daily care activities. Moreover, residents or their representatives from both types of nursing homes demonstrated motivation and competence to master residents’ care based on their individual preferences, but also perceived that their motivation was not always supported by staff or the nursing home environment. Residents’ competence in mastering their care activities in ethno-specific nursing homes was based on the condition that they were given opportunities to use a language of choice in communication and staff and the nursing home demonstrated culturally competent care for them. In addition, ethno-specific nursing homes showed more recourse to support residents to maintain meaningful relationships with peers and others. 

Conclusions: Culturally competent care created by staff, nursing homes and the aged care system is a basic condition for residents from ethnic minority groups to fulfil self-determination. In addition, person-centred care approach enables residents to optimise self-determination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number81
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Aged care
  • Culturally competent care
  • Nursing home
  • Person-centred care
  • Self-determination
  • Workforce issues

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