Comprehensible visualization for augmented reality

Denis Kalkofen, Erick Mendez, Dieter Schmalstieg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents interactive visualizations to support the comprehension of spatial relationships between virtual and real world objects for Augmented Reality (AR) applications. To enhance the clarity of such relationships we discuss visualization techniques and their suitability for AR. We apply them on different AR applications with different goals, e.g. in X-Ray vision or in applications which draw a user's attention to an object of interest. We demonstrate how Focus and Context (F+C) visualizations are used to affect the user's perception of hidden or nearby objects by presenting contextual information in the area of augmentation. We discuss the organization and the possible sources of data for visualizations in Augmented Reality and present cascaded and multi level F+C visualizations to address complex, cluttered scenes that are inevitable in real environments. This article also shows filters and tools to interactively control the amount of augmentation. It compares the impact of real world context preserving to a pure virtual and uniform enhancement of these structures for augmentations of real world imagery. Finally this paper discusses the stylization of sparse object representations for AR to improve X-Ray vision.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4569839
Pages (from-to)193-204
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial
  • Augmented
  • Data structures
  • Graphics data structures and data types
  • Graphs and networks
  • Interaction techniques
  • Methodology and techniques
  • Multimedia information systems
  • Style guides
  • User interfaces
  • Virtual realities


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