Computational vaccinology or vaccine informatics is an interdisciplinary field that addresses scientific and clinical questions in vaccinology using computational and informatics approaches. Computational vaccinology overlaps with many other fields such as immunoinformatics, reverse vaccinology, postlicensure vaccine research, vaccinomics, literature mining, and systems vaccinology. The second ISV Pre-conference Computational Vaccinology Workshop (ICoVax 2012) was held on October 13, 2013 in Shanghai, China. A number of topics were presented in the workshop, including allergen predictions, prediction of linear T cell epitopes and functional conformational epitopes, prediction of protein-ligand binding regions, vaccine design using reverse vaccinology, and case studies in computational vaccinology. Although a significant progress has been made to date, a number of challenges still exist in the field. This Editorial provides a list of major challenges for the future of computational vaccinology and identifies developing themes that will expand and evolve over the next few years.