Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis of graphene quantum dots

Suela Kellici, John Acord, Katherine E. Moore, Nicholas P. Power, Vesna Middelkoop, David J. Morgan, Tobias Heil, Paolo Coppo, Ioan-Alexandru Baragau, Colin L. Raston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Green fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQD) have been synthesized via hydrothermal fragmentation using a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) process as a single, rapid and environmentally benign method. This is in the presence of p-phosphonic acid calix[4]arene which enhances the optical properties of the graphene quantum dots through surface functionalization, with photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 4.5%. Potential environmental impact of a lab-scale supercritical CHFS process compared with that of conventional batch processing of GQDs has been assessed using the method of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)949-958
Number of pages10
JournalReaction Chemistry and Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


  • graphene dots
  • hydrothermal fragmentation
  • ILCD
  • photoluminescence


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