Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men – a pooled-data analysis

Gudrun Schober, Kylie Lange, Robert E. Steinert, Amy T. Hutchison, Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh, Maria F. Landrock, Michael Horowitz, Radhika V. Seimon, Christine Feinle-Bisset

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10 Citations (Scopus)
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We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled. In all studies energy intake was quantified immediately after the infusions. Specific variables for inclusion in a mixed-effects multivariable model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake were chosen following assessment for collinearity, and within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables were determined using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures. In models based on all studies, or lipid studies, there were significant effects for amplitude of antral pressure waves, premeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and time-to-peak GLP-1 concentrations, GLP-1 AUC and bloating scores (P < 0.05), and trends for basal pyloric pressure (BPP), amplitude of duodenal pressure waves, peak CCK concentrations, and hunger and nausea scores (0.05 < P ≤ 0.094), to be independent determinants of subsequent energy intake. In the model including the protein studies, only BPP was identified as an independent determinant of energy intake (P < 0.05). No single parameter was identified across all models, and effects of the variables identified were relatively small. Taken together, while GI mechanisms contribute to the regulation of acute energy intake by lipid and protein, their contribution to the latter is much less. Moreover, the effects are likely to reflect small, cumulative contributions from a range of interrelated factors.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12943
Number of pages14
JournalPhysiological Reports
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sept 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). A open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • Appetite perceptions, determinants of energy intake
  • cholecystokinin
  • glucagon-like peptide-1
  • peptide YY
  • pyloric pressures


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