Costs of Invasive Meningococcal Disease: A Global Systematic Review

Bing Wang, Renee Santoreneos, Hossein Afzali, Lynne Giles, Helen Marshall

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Invasive meningococcal disease remains a public health concern because of its rapid onset and significant risk of death and long-term disability. New meningococcal serogroup B and combination serogroup ACWY vaccines are being considered for publicly funded immunization programs in many countries. Contemporary costing data associated with invasive meningococcal disease are required to inform cost-effectiveness analyses.

Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate costs and resource utilization associated with acute infection and the long-term care of invasive meningococcal disease.

Data Sources and Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, health economic databases, and electronically available conference abstracts were searched. Studies reporting any costs associated with acute infection and long-term sequelae of invasive meningococcal disease in English were included. All costs were converted into purchasing power parity-adjusted estimates [international dollars (I$)] using the Campbell and Cochrane Economics Methods Group and the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Coordinating Centre cost converter.

Results: Fourteen studies met our eligibility criteria and were included. The mean costs of acute admission ranged from I$1629 to I$50,796, with an incremental cost of I$16,378. The mean length of hospital stay was reported to be 6–18 days in multiple studies. The average costs reported for readmissions ranged from I$7905 to I$15,908. Key variables such as the presence of sequelae were associated with higher hospitalization costs and longer inpatient stay. No studies estimated direct non-healthcare costs and productivity loss. Ten studies reported only unadjusted mean values without using appropriate statistical methods for adjustment.

Conclusions: Invasive meningococcal disease can result in substantial costs to healthcare systems. However, costing data on long-term follow-up and indirect costs used to populate health economic models are lacking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1201-1222
Number of pages22
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • invasive meningococcal disease
  • Vaccination
  • Cost effectiveness
  • Cost-of-illness
  • systematic reviews


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