CPR-induced consciousness (CPR-IC) out-of-hospital care: a scoping review protocol

Lucymarie Silvestri, Rachel Soh, Alexander Newton, James Pearce

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-induced consciousness (CPR-IC) is an increasing phenomenon where patients in cardiac arrest receive sufficient brain perfusion to display signs of awareness during resuscitation. This is likely due to improvements in CPR, such as high-performance resuscitation and mechanical devices. CPR-IC has been shown to interfere with rescue efforts and may lead to psychological trauma in both patients and clinicians. It is often witnessed in the out-of-hospital environment, so is significant for practitioners working in this setting. While the phenomenon of CPR-IC has been recognised for several decades, there are many gaps in the literature and no consensus has been reached over its definition or management.

Methods: The JBI scoping review methodology will be used to map the existing literature and identify the extent of clinical knowledge and any gaps regarding the management of CPR-IC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest globally. A comprehensive electronic search strategy will be employed to source works that meet to the study’s inclusion criteria. Relevant data will then be extracted and presented in tabular form with narrative descriptions.

Discussion: CPR-IC is being seen more frequently and, because of its effects on resuscitation, more knowledge is required about appropriate management. This protocol provides the framework for a scoping review which will outline the extent of knowledge and identify areas requiring more research regarding out-of-hospital care of the patient with CPR-IC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-32
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Paramedic Practice
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 May 2023


  • Ambulance
  • Emergency medical services
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-induced consciousness
  • Scoping review


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