Chronotype is linked to adverse health measures and may have important associations with obstructive sleep apnea and blood pressure, but data are limited. This study aimed to determine the separate and combined associations of chronotype with obstructive sleep apnea and blood pressure in a middle-aged community population. Adults (n = 811) from the Raine Study (female = 59.2%; age mean [range] = 56.6 [42.1–76.6] years) were assessed for chronotype (Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire), blood pressure and hypertension (doctor diagnosed or systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg), and obstructive sleep apnea at different in-laboratory apnea–hypopnea index thresholds (5, 10, 15 events per hr). Linear and logistic regression models examined relationships between chronotype and the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea, blood pressure, hypertension, and blood pressure stratified by obstructive sleep apnea severity at above-mentioned apnea–hypopnea index thresholds. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, sleep duration, anti-hypertensive medication, insomnia, and depressive symptoms. Most participants were categorised as morning (40%) or intermediate (43%), with 17% meeting criteria for evening chronotypes. Participants with apnea–hypopnea index ≥ 15 events per hr and morning chronotype had higher systolic (9.9 mmHg, p < 0.001) and a trend for higher diastolic blood pressure (3.4 mmHg, p = 0.07) compared with those with an evening chronotype, and higher systolic blood pressure compared with those with an intermediate chronotype (4.8 mmHg, p = 0.03). Across chronotype categories, no differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure or odds of hypertension were found at apnea–hypopnea index thresholds of ≥ 5 or ≥ 10 events per hr. Among participants with apnea–hypopnea index ≥ 15 events per hr, systolic blood pressure is higher in those with a morning chronotype than evening and intermediate chronotypes. Assessment for morning chronotype may improve risk stratification for hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
- blood pressure
- sleep apnea