Pathogenic microorganisms are becoming a global health issue. Bacterial adhesion and growth on an implant surface form biofilms, endangering the fate of biomaterial in the body. Local infection from the infected implant increases patient mortality. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have necessitated the development of new antibiotic generations. Nanotechnology is a growing field of science that has the potential to create new antibacterial materials. This concise review focuses on several new emerging antimicrobial areas: nanostructured surfaces/nanoparticles, polymer conformations, and two-dimensional antibacterial nanomaterials. Traditional antimicrobial drugs can be triggered by smart stimuli like the environments (pH, moisture, etc.) or physical stimulation like magnetic field and light. A special focus is devoted to the most recent advances in liquid metal particles that can be activated by external stimuli. Conformations of antibacterial polymers have also caught researcher interest owing to their unique bactericidal processes. The review concludes with the authors’ vision for the future directions of the field.
- Liquid metal