Current practice in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis

Kengadhevi Yogeswaran, João M. Furtado, Bahram Bodaghi, Janet M. Matthews, International Ocular Toxoplasmosis Study Group, Justine R. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Ocular toxoplasmosis is common across all regions of the world.Understanding of the epidemiology and approach to diagnosis and treatment have evolved recently.In November 2020, an international group of uveitis-specialised ophthalmologists formed the International Ocular Toxoplasmosis Study Group to define current practice.Methods: 192 Study Group members from 48 countries completed a 36-item survey on clinical features, use of investigations, indications for treatment, systemic and intravitreal treatment with antiparasitic drugs and corticosteroids, and approach to follow-up and preventive therapy.Results: For 77.1% of members, unilateral retinochoroiditis adjacent to a pigmented scar accounted for over 60% of presentations, but diverse atypical presentations were also reported.Common complications included persistent vitreous opacities, epiretinal membrane, cataract, and ocular hypertension or glaucoma.Most members used clinical examination with (56.8%) or without (35.9%) serology to diagnose typical disease but relied on intraocular fluid testing - usually PCR - in atypical cases (68.8%).66.1% of members treated all non-pregnant patients, while 33.9% treated selected patients.Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was first-line therapy for 66.7% of members, and 60.9% had experience using intravitreal clindamycin.Corticosteroid drugs were administered systemically by 97.4%; 24.7% also injected corticosteroid intravitreally, almost always in combination with an antimicrobial drug (72.3%).The majority of members followed up all (60.4%) or selected (35.9%) patients after resolution of acute disease, and prophylaxis against recurrence with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed to selected patients by 69.8%.Conclusion: Our report presents a current management approach for ocular toxoplasmosis, as practised by a large international group of uveitis-specialised ophthalmologists.

Original languageEnglish
Article number321091
Number of pages7
JournalBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
Early online date23 Feb 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Feb 2022


  • infection
  • inflammation
  • retina
  • ocular toxoplasmosis
  • intravitreal treatment
  • unilateral retinochoroiditis


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