Cyber intrusion detection in operations of bulk handling ports

Kim Monks, Elena Sitnikova, Nour Moustafa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Bulk handling ports are integral to the well-being of resource-driven export economies. They rely on Industrial Control Systems (ICS) to coordinate the receiving, stockpiling, processing and loading of bulk carriers to sustain the 24/7 movement of millions of tons of material. Defense of an ICS against cyber-attack is essential to the resilient operation of these ports, and identification and remediation of intrusions are significant components of effective defense practice. This paper investigates the role of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms in designing an efficient Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that can recognise malicious activities that confront the ICS of a bulk handling port and includes an assessment of existing IDS-based ML methods. We also design a bulk port cyber simulation to evaluate some well-known ML techniques and their capability for establishing an effective bulk handling port ICS IDS. The empirical results reveal that the use of ML techniques can achieve high performance in terms of accuracy and false alarm rates in a simulated environment. However, a comparison of a simulated bulk handling port environment with a production environment led us to conclude that our simulation needs further analysis and modelling in order to be applied in real Bulk handling ports.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 17th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, ECCWS 2018
EditorsAudun Josang
Place of PublicationRed Hook, NY
PublisherCurran Associates Inc
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781911218852, 9781510866041
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes
Event17th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, ECCWS 2018 - Oslo, Norway
Duration: 28 Jun 201829 Jun 2018

Publication series

NameEuropean Conference on Information Warfare and Security, ECCWS
ISSN (Print)2048-8602
ISSN (Electronic)2048-8610


Conference17th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, ECCWS 2018


  • Anomaly detection
  • Bulk handling port
  • Cyber attack
  • Industrial control system
  • Intrusion detection


Dive into the research topics of 'Cyber intrusion detection in operations of bulk handling ports'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this