Earlier we had found that the CYP2C9*2 allelic frequency was lower in Mexican-Americans living in California than in Spaniards (SP). This was assumed to be related to the low CYP2C9*2 and *3 allele frequencies in Orientals. This study was therefore aimed at analyzing whether there were also differences in CYP2C9 allele frequencies between Mexican-Tepehuanos (MT) and Mexican-Mestizos (MM) living in northwestern Mexico and SP. The CYP2C9*2 frequency was expected to be lower in the indigenous MT than in the two other groups, and lower in MM than in SP as in our earlier study. CYP2C9 genotypes and allele frequencies of two populations of healthy volunteers, MT (n=99) and MM (n=102), were compared with a population of SP (n=327). The data were also compared with our previously published population of Mestizo-Mexican-Americans (MA). The CYP2C9 genotypes among the studied populations were in equilibrium. The frequencies of CYP2C9*2 were 0.01, 0.07, 0.08, and 0.16 for MT, MM, MA, and SP subjects, respectively. In agreement with our hypothesis, CYP2C9*2 was significantly lower in the Mexican populations than in the SP (P<0.05), and among Mexicans in the MT than in the MM and MA groups (P<0.05), which presented similar frequencies. Moreover, the frequency of CYP2C9*3 was found to be lower (P<0.05) in MM (0.015) and MT (0.015) than in MA (0.06) and SP (0.08). Finally, the CYP2C9*6 allele was present just in one MM subject, and CYP2C9*4 and *5 were not found in the studied populations. Therefore, these findings add further evidence about CYP2C9 genetic diversity within Hispanic populations with regard to their ancestry. Considering that CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles have altered catalytic activities relative to CYP2C91, the present data suggest the need for pharmacogenetic studies to optimize drug dosages in different populations.