Demystifying Ocular Syphilis–A Major Review

Khushboo Chauhan, Alex Fonollosa, Lena Giralt, Joseba Artaraz, Edward L. Randerson, Debra A. Goldstein, João M. Furtado, Justine R. Smith, Sridharan Sudharshan, Arshee S. Ahmed, Nivedita Nair, Joveeta Joseph, Carlos Pavesio, Mark Westcott, Supawat Trepatchayakorn, Ahmed B. Sallam, Abdelrahman M. Elhusseiny, Mudit Tyagi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Syphilis, caused by the spirochaete, Treponema pallidum, continues to be a public health challenge globally with its rates steadily increasing in the past few years. The disease is transmitted through small breaks in the skin during sexual contact, or via congenital transmission in utero, either across the placenta or by contact with an active genital lesion during delivery. Estimated 5.7–6 million new cases are detected every year worldwide in the 15–49 years age group. An increased incidence has been reported in most populations with particular clusters in special groups like men who have sex with men, female sex workers, and their male clients. Ocular syphilis has a varied presentation and is considered a great mimicker in all cases of uveitis. The laboratory diagnosis of syphilis is predominantly based on serological tests including TPHA and VDRL. Parenteral penicillin is the cornerstone of treatment for all stages of ocular syphilis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1425-1439
Number of pages15
JournalOcular Immunology and Inflammation
Issue number7
Early online date12 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • chorioretinitis
  • Ocular syphilis
  • penicillin
  • syphilitic uveitis
  • Treponema pallidum


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