Depression in young adolescents: Investigations using 2 and 3 factor versions of the parental bonding instrument

Graham Martin, Helen A. Bergen, Leigh Roeger, Stephen Allison

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45 Citations (Scopus)


Associations between parenting style and depressive symptomatology in a community sample of young adolescents (N = 2596) were investigated using self-report measures including the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Specifically, the 25-item 2-factor and 3-factor models by Parker et al. (1979), Kendler's (1996) 16-item 3-factor model, and Parker's (1983) quadrant model for the Parental Bonding Instrument were compared. Data analysis included analysis of variance and logistic regression. Reanalysis of Parker's original scale indicates that overprotection is composed of separate factors: intrusiveness (at the individual level) and restrictiveness (in the social context). All models reveal significant independent contributions from paternal care, maternal care, and maternal overprotection (2-factor) or intrusiveness (3-factor) to moderate and serious depressive symptomatology, controlling for sex and family living arrangement. Additive rather than multiplicative interactions between care and overprotection were found. Regardless of the level of parental care and affection, clinicians should note that maternal intrusiveness is strongly associated with adverse psychosocial health in young adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)650-657
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Depression
  • PBI


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