Design principles for bacteria-responsive antimicrobial nanomaterials

J. Y. Quek, E. Uroro, N. Goswami, K. Vasilev

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Despite advancements in biomedical sciences and medicine, bacterial infection remains a leading cause of death globally. The conventional treatment of bacterial infections through general administration of antibiotics has been challenged by the emergence of antibiotics resistance. An exciting direction to solve current challenges that attracted enormous interest in the last decade is focused on designing stimuli-responsive systems incorporating a wide range of antimicrobial nanomaterials. The aim of this review is to highlight fundamental principles involved in the design of bacteria-responsive nanosystems that release their antibacterial load in response only to the specific environment and factors produced endogenously by bacteria. Such specific changes to the micro-environment include changes in pH, reactive oxygen species, and production of enzymes specific to bacteria. We provide examples and a critical review of such systems and finish with the authors’ perspective for the future of the field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100606
Number of pages30
JournalMaterials Today Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Antimicrobial
  • Bacteria-responsive
  • Drug delivery
  • Endogenous stimuli
  • Nanomaterials


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