Developing an item bank to measure the coping strategies of people with hereditary retinal diseases

Mallika Prem Senthil, Jyoti Khadka, John De Roach, Tina Lamey, Terri McLaren, Isabella Campbell, Eva Fenwick, Ecosse Lamoureux, Konrad Pesudovs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Our understanding of the coping strategies used by people with visual impairment to manage stress related to visual loss is limited. This study aims to develop a sophisticated coping instrument in the form of an item bank implemented via Computerised adaptive testing (CAT) for hereditary retinal diseases. Methods: Items on coping were extracted from qualitative interviews with patients which were supplemented by items from a literature review. A systematic multi-stage process of item refinement was carried out followed by expert panel discussion and cognitive interviews. The final coping item bank had 30 items. Rasch analysis was used to assess the psychometric properties. A CAT simulation was carried out to estimate an average number of items required to gain precise measurement of hereditary retinal disease-related coping. Results: One hundred eighty-nine participants answered the coping item bank (median age = 58 years). The coping scale demonstrated good precision and targeting. The standardised residual loadings for items revealed six items grouped together. Removal of the six items reduced the precision of the main coping scale and worsened the variance explained by the measure. Therefore, the six items were retained within the main scale. Our CAT simulation indicated that, on average, less than 10 items are required to gain a precise measurement of coping. Conclusions: This is the first study to develop a psychometrically robust coping instrument for hereditary retinal diseases. CAT simulation indicated that on an average, only four and nine items were required to gain measurement at moderate and high precision, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1291-1298
Number of pages8
JournalGraefe's Archive For Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • Psychometric properties
  • Rasch analysis
  • Computerized adaptive testing
  • Item bank
  • Hereditary retinal diseases
  • Coping


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