Development and validation of an individual-based state-transition model for the prediction of frailty and frailty-related events

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Frailty is a biological syndrome that is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality. To assess the value of interventions to prevent or manage frailty, all important impacts on costs and outcomes should be estimated. The aim of this study is to describe the development and validation of an individual-based state transition model that predicts the incidence and progression of frailty and frailty-related events over the remaining lifetime of older Australians. An individual-based state transition simulation model comprising integrated sub models that represent the occurrence of seven events (mortality, hip fracture,
falls, admission to hospital, delirium, physical disability, and transitioning to residential care) was developed. The initial parameterisation used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The model was then calibrated for an Australian population using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The simulation model established internal validity with respect to predicting outcomes at 24 months for the SHARE population. Calibration was required to predict longer terms outcomes at 48 months in the SHARE and HILDA data. Using probabilistic calibration
methods, over 1,000 sampled sets of input parameter met the convergence criteria across six external calibration targets. The developed model provides a tool for predicting frailty and frailty-related events in a representative community dwelling Australian population aged over 65 years and provides the basis for economic evaluation of frailty-focussed interventions. Calibration to outcomes observed over an extended time horizon would improve model validity
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0290567
Number of pages18
JournalPLoS One
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2023


  • Frailty
  • Frailty-related events
  • Health
  • Population health
  • Incidence
  • Predicting frailty
  • Frailty-focussed interventions


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