Background - In ventricular scar, impulse spread is slow because it traverses split and zigzag channels of surviving muscle. We aimed to evaluate scar electrograms to determine their local delay (activation time) and inequality in voltage splitting (entropy), and their relationship to channels. We reasoned that unlike innocuous channels, which are often short with multiple side branches, ventricular tachycardia (VT) supporting channels have very slow impulse spread and possess low entropy because of their longer protected length and relative lack of side-branching. Methods and Results - Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and multiple VT were studied. In initial mapping stage (16 patients and 58 VTs), left ventricular endocardial mapping was performed in sinus rhythm. Detailed pace mapping was used to identify VT channels and confirmed, when feasible, by entrainment. Scar electrograms were analyzed in time and voltage domains to determine mean activation time, dispersion in activation time, and entropy. Predictive performances of these properties to detect VT channels were tested. In the application stage (7 patients and 20 VTs), these properties were prospectively tested to guide catheter ablation. A mean number of 763±203 sampling points were taken. From 1770 pace maps, 47 channels corresponded to VTs. A combination of scar electrograms with the latest mean activation time and minimum entropy, in a high activation dispersion region, accurately recognized regions containing VT channels (κ=0.89, sensitivity=86%, specificity=100%, positive predictive value=93%, and negative predictive value=100%). Finally, focused ablation within 5-mm rim of the prospective channel regions eliminated 18 of 20 inducible VTs. Conclusions - Activation time and entropy mapping in the scar accurately identify VT channels during sinus rhythm. The method integrates principles of reentry formation to recognize VT channels without pace mapping or mapping during VT.
- catheter ablation
- ventricular tachycardia