Dietary intake in adults on hemodialysis compared with guideline recommendations

Valeria M. Saglimbene, Guobin Su, Germaine Wong, Patrizia Natale, Marinella Ruospo, Suetonia C. Palmer, Jonathan C. Craig, Juan J. Carrero, Giovanni F.M. Strippoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Clinical practice guidelines of dietary management are designed to promote a balanced diet and maintain health in patients undergoing haemodialysis but they may not reflect patients’ preferences. We aimed to investigate the consistency between the dietary intake of patients on maintenance haemodialysis and guideline recommendations. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the DIET-HD study, which included 6,906 adults undergoing haemodialysis in 10 European countries. Dietary intake was determined using the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and compared with the European Best Practice Guidelines. Consistency with guidelines was defined as achieving the minimum daily recommended intake for energy (≥ 30 kcal/kg) and protein (≥ 1.1 g/kg), and not exceeding the maximum recommended daily intake for phosphate (≤ 1000 mg), potassium (≤ 2730 mg), sodium (≤ 2300 mg) and calcium (≤ 800 mg). Results: Overall, patients’ dietary intakes of phosphate and potassium were infrequently consistent with guidelines (consistent in 25% and 25% of patients, respectively). Almost half of the patients reported that energy (45%) and calcium intake (53%) was consistent with the guidelines, while the recommended intake of sodium and protein was consistent in 85% and 67% of patients, respectively. Results were similar across all participating countries. Intake was consistent with all six guideline recommendations in only 1% of patients. Conclusion: Patients on maintenance haemodialysis usually have a dietary intake which is inconsistent with current recommendations, especially for phosphate and potassium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1999-2007
Number of pages9
Issue number6
Early online date16 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Diet
  • End-stage-kidney-disease
  • Haemodialysis
  • Nutrition


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