Dietary sodium intake relates to vascular health in children with type 1 diabetes

Jemma Anderson, Jennifer J. Couper, Sarah Toome, Christine Mpundu-Kaambwa, Lynne C. Giles, Roger Gent, Brian Coppin, Alexia S. Peña

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    Background and Objective: Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have vascular dysfunction and frequently struggle to adhere to dietary recommendations. Limited data exist for the vascular consequences of poor diet quality in children. We aimed to evaluate the association between dietary components and vascular function in children with T1D. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 90 children (13.6 [3.5] years, 41 boys) with T1D. They had evaluation of dietary micro and macronutrients (Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey), vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function (flow-mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate mediated dilatation [GTN], respectively), clinical and biochemical variables. Results: Children had a sodium intake of 3.013 (0.76) (mean [SD]) g/day. Vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, as measured by GTN, related to higher daily sodium intake (r = −0.31, P =.003), independent of the inverse relationships between GTN and total energy (r = −0.30, P =.005) and fat intake (r = −0.28, P =.007). Multiregression model showed that an increase in 1 g of daily sodium intake was independently associated with a deterioration of 3 percentage units in GTN (95% CI −4.3, −0.9; P =.003). There was an association between sodium intake and systolic blood pressure after adjustment for age and gender (regression coefficient 2.4; 95% CI 0.5, 4.3; P =.01). Conclusions: High dietary sodium intake in children with T1D is common and relates to vascular dysfunction, independently of other dietary intake, blood pressure, and glycemic control.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)138-142
    Number of pages5
    JournalPediatric Diabetes
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


    • children
    • sodium
    • type 1 diabetes
    • vascular function


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