Dipole Formation at Active Materials/P(NDI3N-T-Br) Interface in Organic-Based Photovoltaic

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2 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, a new potential electron transport material, poly[(N,N'-bis(3-(N,N-dimethyl)-N-ethylammonium)propyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl)-alt-2,5-thiophene)]dibromide P(NDI3N-T-Br), is studied in conjunction with active layers formed by poly[2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) and poly[[N,N′-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5′-(2,2′-bithiophene)] (N2200). The energy levels of the active layer TQ1 and N2200 in contact with P(NDI3N-T-Br) have been determined by photoelectron spectroscopy. The dipole formed at the interface of the active layer and P(NDI3N-T-Br) is significantly different to the dipole formed at the respective interface with ITO. The dipole between the active layer and P(NDI3N-T-Br) blocks the transfer of holes from TQ1 to P(NDI3N-T-Br) which is desired, but the hole still transfers from the N2200 to P(NDI3N-T-Br) due to N2200 being an electron acceptor. This energy level alignment meets the expectation of using P(NDI3N-T-Br) as an interface layer in blocking the hole transfer to the interface layer when TQ1:N2200 is used in the active layer. The present work provides an understanding of P(NDI3N-T-Br) as charge extraction layer and indicates its potential to be used in organic photovoltaics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200303
Number of pages15
JournalMacromolecular Materials and Engineering
Issue number10
Early online date16 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • electron spectroscopy
  • interface layers
  • organic photovoltaics


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