The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system comprises two ligands, IGF-I and IGF-II, that regulate multiple physiological processes, including mammalian development, metabolism and growth, through the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R). The growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis is the major regulator of longitudinal growth. IGF-II is expressed in many tissues, notably the placenta, to regulate human pre- and post-natal growth and development. This review provides a brief introduction to the IGF system and summarizes findings from reports arising from recent larger genomic sequencing studies of human genetic mutations in IGF1 and IGF2 and genes of proteins regulating IGF action, namely the IGF-1R, IGF-1R signaling pathway components and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). A perspective on the effect of homozygous mutations on structure and function of the IGFs and IGF-1R is also given and this is related to the effects on growth.
- IGF-I deficiency
- SHORT syndrome