Do 3-D Printed Handheld Models Improve Surgeon Reliability for Recognition of Intraarticular Distal Radius Fracture Characteristics?

David W.G. Langerhuizen, Job N. Doornberg, Michiel M.A. Janssen, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, Ruurd L. Jaarsma, Stein J. Janssen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: For fracture care, radiographs and two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) CT are primarily used for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. Intraarticular distal radius fractures are technically challenging to treat, and meticulous preoperative planning is paramount to improve the patient's outcome. Three-dimensionally printed handheld models might improve the surgeon's interpretation of specific fracture characteristics and patterns preoperatively and could therefore be clinically valuable; however, the additional value of 3-D printed handheld models for fractures of the distal radius, a high-volume and commonly complex fracture due to its intraarticular configuration, has yet to be determined. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the reliability of assessing specific fracture characteristics that guide surgical decision-making for distal radius fractures improve with 3-D printed handheld models? (2) Does surgeon agreement on the overall fracture classification improve with 3-D printed handheld models? (3) Does the surgeon's confidence improve when assessing the overall fracture configuration with an additional 3-D model? METHODS: We consecutively included 20 intraarticular distal radius fractures treated at a Level 1 trauma center between May 2018 and November 2018. Ten surgeons evaluated the presence or absence of specific fracture characteristics (volar rim fracture, die punch, volar lunate facet, dorsal comminution, step-off > 2 mm, and gap > 2 mm), fracture classification according to the AO/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) classification scheme, and their confidence in assessing the overall fracture according to the classification scheme, rated on a scale from 0 to 10 (0 = not at all confident to 10 = very confident). Of 10 participants regularly treating distal radius fractures, seven were orthopaedic trauma surgeons and three upper limb surgeons with experience levels ranging from 1 to 25 years after completion of residency training. Fractures were assessed twice, with 1 month between each assessment. Initially, fractures were assessed using radiographs and 2-D and 3-D CT images (conventional assessment); the second time, the evaluation was based on radiographs and 2-D and 3-D CT images with an additional 3-D handheld model (3-D printed handheld model assessment). On both occasions, fracture characteristics were evaluated upon a surgeon's own interpretation, without specific instruction before assessment. We provided a sheet demonstrating the AO/OTA classification scheme before evaluation on each session. Multi-rater Fleiss's kappa was used to determine intersurgeon reliability for assessing fracture characteristics and classification. Confidence regarding assessment of the overall fracture classification was assessed using a paired t-test. RESULTS: We found that 3-D printed models of intraarticular distal radius fractures led to no change in kappa values for the reliability of all characteristics: volar rim (conventional kappa 0.19 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.32], kappa for 3-D handheld model 0.23 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.36], difference of kappas 0.04 [95% CI -0.14 to 0.22]; p = 0.66), die punch (conventional kappa 0.38 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.61], kappa for 3-D handheld model 0.50 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.78], difference of kappas 0.12 [95% CI -0.23 to 0.47]; p = 0.52), volar lunate facet (conventional kappa 0.31 [95% CI 0.14 to 0.49], kappa for 3-D handheld model 0.48 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.72], difference of kappas 0.17 [95% CI -0.12 to 0.46]; p = 0.26), dorsal comminution (conventional kappa 0.36 [95% CI 0.13 to 0.58], kappa for 3-D handheld model 0.31 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.51], difference of kappas -0.05 [95% CI -0.34 to 0.24]; p = 0.74), step-off > 2 mm (conventional kappa 0.55 [95% CI 0.29 to 0.82], kappa for 3-D handheld model 0.58 [95% CI 0.31 to 0.85], difference of kappas 0.03 [95% CI -0.34 to 0.40]; p = 0.87), gap > 2 mm (conventional kappa 0.59 [95% CI 0.39 to 0.79], kappa for 3-D handheld model 0.69 [95% CI 0.50 to 0.89], difference of kappas 0.10 [95% CI -0.17 to 0.37]; p = 0.48). Although there appeared to be categorical improvement in kappa values for some fracture characteristics, overlapping CIs indicated no change. Fracture classification did not improve (conventional diagnostics: kappa 0.27 [95% CI 0.14 to 0.39], conventional diagnostics with an additional 3-D handheld model: kappa 0.25 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.35], difference of kappas: -0.02 [95% CI -0.18 to 0.14]; p = 0.81). There was no improvement in self-assessed confidence in terms of assessment of overall fracture configuration when a 3-D model was added to the evaluation process (conventional diagnostics 7.8 [SD 0.79 {95% CI 7.2 to 8.3}], 3-D handheld model 8.5 [SD 0.71 {95% CI 8.0 to 9.0}], difference of score: 0.7 [95% CI -1.69 to 0.16], p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Intersurgeon reliability for evaluating the characteristics of and classifying intraarticular distal radius fractures did not improve with an additional 3-D model. Further studies should evaluate the added value of 3-D printed handheld models for teaching surgical residents and medical trainees to define the future role of 3-D printing in caring for fractures of the distal radius. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, diagnostic study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2901-2908
Number of pages8
JournalClinical orthopaedics and related research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • 3-D Printed Models
  • 3D Printed Models
  • Surgeon Reliability
  • Distal Radius Fracture
  • Amsterdam University Medical Centre
  • Flinders Medical Centre
  • Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons
  • Intraarticular configuration


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