A family developmental framework was applied to data from families of children with intellectual disabilities to understand the role of parenting in the path from early adversity to problem behaviors in mid-childhood. Data from 9 months to 11 years tested the Family Stress Model in families of 555 children. Adversarial parenting between 3 and 5 years mediated the path from early adversity (family poverty and maternal psychological distress at nine months) to problem behaviors at 7 and 11 years. Positive parent–child relationship only mediated the path to conduct problems. Multiple mediation was not present. Early adversity impacts both positive parent–child relationship and adversarial parenting between three and five, but the latter is crucial for problem behaviors in mid-childhood.
- Problem Behaviors
- Intellectual Disability