Eating architecture in adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes: Associations with body fat and glycaemic control

Lijun Zhao, Xiao Tong Teong, Kai Liu, Bo Liu, Yohannes A. Melaku, Andrew D. Vincent, Emily N.C. Manoogian, Satchidananda Panda, Gary Wittert, Amy T. Hutchison, Leonie Kay Heilbronn

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Eating architecture is a term that describes meal frequency, meal timing, and meal size and the daily variation in each of these. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between components of eating architecture on body fat and markers of glycaemic control in healthy adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Participants (N=73, 39 males, age 58.8 [8.1] years, BMI 33.4 [4.4] kg/m2) recorded food intake and wore accelerometers and continuous glucose monitors (CGM) for 7-14 days under free-living conditions. Body fat and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were also measured. The mean and day-to-day variation (calculated as the standard deviation during the monitoring period) of each component of eating architecture were calculated. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed for three separate outcome variables (body fat mass, mean CGM glucose, and HbA1c) for each component of eating architecture before and after adjustment for confounders. Higher variability in the time of first meal consumption was associated with increased body fat mass after adjusting for confounders (β=0.227, 95% CI: 0.019, 0.434, p=0.033). Increased variability in the time lag from waking to first meal consumption was also positively associated with increased HbA1c after adjustment (β=0.285, 95%CI: 0.040, 0.530, p=0.023). Low day-to-day variability in first meal consumption was associated with lower body fat and improved glucose control in adults at increased risk of T2DM. Routine consumption of meals may optimise temporal regulation to anticipate and respond appropriately to a glucose challenge.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
    Early online date5 Aug 2021
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Aug 2021

    Keywords

    • Breakfast
    • Glycaemia control
    • Meal regularity
    • Meal timing
    • Obesity

    Fingerprint

    Dive into the research topics of 'Eating architecture in adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes: Associations with body fat and glycaemic control'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this