Engineered ecosystems from farmland and cities are the most important providers of ecosystem services (ES) for the world population. This chapter discusses the concept of ES, their valuation methods, the types of engineered systems and how ES can be adopted by them to enhance them and ensure an equitable and sustainable future. The ES framework has been increasingly used to explain the interactions between ecosystems and human well-being. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and provided a framework to identify and classify ES. It established the scientific basis for actions needed to balance nature and human well-being by sustainable use of ecosystems. The chapter follows MEA typology and discusses the ES approach and ecosystem-based adaptation. The ES challenges within cities are enormous and are discussed in the chapter.
- Agricultural ecosystem
- Ecosystem services (ES)
- Engineered ecosystems
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)
- Urban ecosystem