Effect of glycomacropeptide fractions on cholecystokinin and food intake

Jennifer Keogh, Brad Woonton, Cheryl Taylor, Filip Janakievski, Kirthi Desilva, Peter Clifton

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    35 Citations (Scopus)


    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the hydrophilic 64-amino acid C-terminal glycopeptide released into cheese whey when -casein is cleaved by chymosin. GMP exists as a mixture of different glycoforms due to the carbohydrates sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NeuNAc), galactose (Gal), galactosamine and glucosamine attached by O-glycosidic linkages. GMP reportedly stimulates the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), which may promote satiety. The objectives of the present study were to manufacture three glycoforms of GMP, minimally glycosylated GMP (35 (sd 01)% NeuNAc and 15 (sd 01)% Gal), glycosylated GMP (120 (sd 03)% NeuNAc and 42 (sd 02)% Gal) and a GMP-depleted whey protein concentrate, and to assess the effects of these fractions relative to glucose on CCK, subjective measures of satiety and food intake. In a randomised double-blind acute study, twenty overweight/obese males (569 (sd 72)years, 974 (sd 81)kg, 315 (sd 30)kg/m2) were recruited to consume four 50g preloads (two GMP preparations, GMP-depleted whey and glucose) containing 895kJ. Blood samples and subjective measures of satiety were collected before and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180min after the consumption of preload, and CCK levels were measured. A lunchtime meal of hot food was provided from which subjects ate ad libitum until satisfied. Energy and nutrient intakes from the food consumed were calculated. There was no significant difference in CCK levels, subjective measures of satiety or food intake between treatments at the given preload level. These results suggest that the protein fractions at the dose employed do not influence satiety, CCK levels or energy intake at a subsequent meal.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)286-290
    Number of pages5
    JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


    • Appetite
    • Cholecystokinin
    • Food intake
    • Glycomacropeptide
    • Satiety


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