Effect of intravenous glucose and euglycemic insulin infusions on short-term appetite and food intake

Ian M. Chapman, Elizabeth A. Goble, Gary A. Wittert, John E. Morley, Michael Horowitz

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88 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To investigate the short-term effects of insulin on feeding, 14 fasting, young adults received 150-min euglycemic intravenous infusions of control (C), low-dose (LD, 0.8 mU ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1), and high-dose (HD, 1.6 mU ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) insulin and ate freely from a buffet meal during the last 30 min. Steady-state preprandial plasma insulin concentrations were 5.9 ± 0.7 (C), 47 ± 2 (LD), and 95 ± 6 (HD) μU/ml and increased 56–59 μU/ml during the meal. No effect of treatment type on hunger or fullness ratings, duration of eating, or the weight, energy content (1,053 ± 95 kcal, C; 1,045 ± 101 kcal, LD; 1,066 ± 107 kcal, HD; P = 0.9), and composition of food eaten was observed. On a fourth study day, 12 of the subjects received an intravenous infusion of glucose only (Glc) that was identical to the glucose infusion on their HD insulin day. Mean venous glucose concentration was 9.3 ± 0.5 mmol [P < 0.001 vs. C (5.3 ± 0.1), LD (5.2 ± 0.2), and HD (5.2 ± 0.2)], and plasma insulin increased to 45 ± 2.3 μU/ml at the start and 242 ± 36 μU/ml at the end of the meal. Energy intake during the meal was (∼15%) reduced (1,072 ± 97 kcal, C; 1,086 ± 102 kcal, LD; 1,088 ± 105 kcal, HD; 919 ± 115 kcal, Glc;P < 0.05 Glc vs. C, LD, and HD). Plasma insulin normally increases to ∼100 μU/ml after a mixed meal in lean subjects. Therefore, in the absence of altered blood glucose concentrations, physiological concentrations of insulin are unlikely to play a role in meal termination and the short-term control of appetite.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R596-R603
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume274
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1998
Externally publishedYes

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