To determine the effect of upper airway (UA) negative pressure and collapse during inspiration on regulation of breathing, we studied four unanesthetized female dogs during wakefulness and sleep while they breathed via a fenestrated tracheostomy tube, which was sealed around the permanent tracheal stoma. The snout was sealed with an airtight mask, thereby isolating the UA when the fenestration (Fen) was closed and exposing the UA to intrathoracic pressure changes, but not to flow changes, when Fen was open. During tracheal occlusion with Fen closed, inspiratory time (TI) increased during wakefulness, non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and rapid-eye- movement (REM) sleep (155 ± 8, 164 ± 11, and 161 ± 32%, respectively), reflecting the removal of inhibitory lung inflation reflexes. During tracheal occlusion with Fen open (vs. Fen closed): 1) the UA remained patent; 2) TI further increased during wakefulness and NREM (215 ± 52 and 197 ± 28%, respectively) but nonsignificantly during REM sleep (196 ± 42%); 3) mean rate of rise of diaphragm EMG (EMGdi/TI) and rate of fall of tracheal pressure (Ptr/TI) were decreased, reflecting an additional inhibitory input from UA receptors; and 4) both EMGdi/TI and Ptr/TI were decreased proportionately more as inspiration proceeded, suggesting greater reflex inhibition later in the effort. Similar inhibitory effects of exposing the UA to negative pressure (via an open tracheal Fen) were seen when an inspiratory resistive load was applied over several breaths during wakefulness and sleep. These inhibitory effects persisted even in the face of rising chemical stimuli. This inhibition of inspiratory motor output is alinear within an inspiration and reflects the activation of UA pressure-sensitive receptors by UA distortion, with greater distortion possibly occurring later in the effort.
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- Fenestrated tracheostomy tube
- Obstructive apnea
- Tracheal occlusion