Effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation programs on medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

Background: Education to improve medication adherence is one of the core components of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. However, the evidence on the effectiveness of CR programs on medication adherence is conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to summarize the effectiveness of CR programs versus standard care on medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular disease. 

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Seven databases and clinical trial registries were searched for published and unpublished articles from database inception to 09 Feb 2022. Only randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies were included. Two independent reviewers conducted the screening, extraction, and appraisal. The JBI methodology for effectiveness reviews and PRISMA 2020 guidelines were followed. A statistical meta-analysis of included studies was pooled using RevMan version 5.4.1. 

Results: In total 33 studies were included with 16,677 participants. CR programs increased medication adherence by 14 % (RR = 1.14; 95 % CI: 1.07 to 1.22; p = 0.0002) with low degree of evidence certainty. CR also lowered the risk of dying by 17 % (RR = 0.83; 95 % CI: 0.69 to 1.00; p = 0.05); primary care and emergency department visit by mean difference of 0.19 (SMD = −0.19; 95 % CI: −0.30 to −0.08; p = 0.0008); and improved quality of life by 0.93 (SMD = 0.93; 95 % CI: 0.38 to 1.49; p = 0.0010). But no significant difference was observed in lipid profiles, except with total cholesterol (SMD = −0.26; 95 % CI: −0.44 to −0.07; p = 0.006) and blood pressure levels. 

Conclusions: CR improves medication adherence with a low degree of evidence certainty and non-significant changes in lipid and blood pressure levels. This result requires further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number200229
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention
Volume20
Early online date12 Dec 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • Cardiac rehabilitation
  • Clinical outcomes
  • Effectiveness
  • Medication adherence
  • Standard care
  • Systematic review

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