Research on nutrition and feed development for the broodstock of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is rare, and a poor broodstock quality is a critical factor restricting the seed supply in shrimp farming. As an essential nutrient for the gonadal development of L. vannamei, one control diet (no phospholipid) and three typical phospholipids (soybean lecithin, egg yolk lecithin, and krill oil) were evaluated in a semipurified diet of 4% phospholipid for a 28-day trial (initial weight 34.7 ± 4.2 g). Dietary phospholipid supplementation significantly promoted the ovarian maturation of female L. vannamei. Compared with soybean lecithin and egg yolk lecithin, krill oil showed the best positive results. Shrimp fed with a diet krill oil has obtained a significantly higher gonadosomatic index, yolk particle deposition, lipid accumulation, and estrogen secretion than from other sources. Ovary lipidomic analysis showed that the krill oil enriched the lipid composition of the ovary. The “glycerophospholipid metabolism” and “sphingolipid metabolism” pathways were significantly varied via topological pathway analysis. Genes and hub genes, with significantly different expression levels, were significantly enriched in the “fatty acid metabolism pathway,” “glycerophospholipid metabolism,” and “arachidonic acid metabolism” pathways by transcriptomic analysis. Correlation analysis of the transcriptome and lipidomics showed that the differential gene “hormone-sensitive lipase-like” (HSL) was positively correlated with various lipids [triglycerides (TG), phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylserine (P), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), glucosylceramide (GlcCer), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI)] but was negatively correlated with diacylglycerol (DG), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), and sphingomyelin (SM). In conclusion, the dietary phospholipids, especially krill oil as a phospholipid source, can promote the development of L. vannamei ovaries by increasing the accumulation of nutrients such as triglycerides and sterols, and the secretion of estrogen or related hormones, such as estradiol and methylfarneside, by affecting the metabolism of glycerol phospholipids and some key fatty acids.
- Litopenaeus vannamei
- ovarian maturation