Purpose: Resistance exercise is promoted in older adults for its ability to improve muscle mass, strength and, hence, in reducing falls. However, its effects on blood lipids and CVD risk are less well established, particularly in this age group. This study aimed to investigate whether a 1-year resistance exercise program improves lipid profile and chylomicron concentration in older men. Methods: Participants were randomised to either three, 1 h resistance training sessions per week (RE) or an active control group [asked to undertake three 30 min walking sessions per week (AC)]. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 6, and 12 months for determination of lipid profile and glycaemic control. Diet, morphological and activity data were also collected at these time points. Results: Following 12 months, the RE intervention group had greater improvements in cholesterol profile; LDL-cholesterol concentration significantly decreased by 0.2 (0.2) mM [mean (SEM)] compared to control (P < 0.05). The RE group also exhibited a significant increase in lean body mass of 0.9 (1.3) kg after 12 months compared to the AC group (P < 0.05). There was no treatment or time effect on other anthropometric measures or fasting triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin or chylomicron concentrations. Conclusion: The observed improvements in lean body mass and cholesterol profile promote the implementation of a resistance exercise intervention in this population.