This study evaluates the effects of dietary lipid percentage (7% and 13%) on growth performance, body composition, antioxidative status and hepatopancreas lipid catabolism of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Each lipid diet was supplemented with three concentrations of α-lipoic acid at 0, 700 and 1400 mg/kg, and fed to E. sinensis juveniles for eight weeks. The weight gain and specific growth rate of crabs fed the diets supplemented with α-LA were significantly higher than those fed the control diet without α-LA, regardless of dietary lipid percentage. The α-LA significantly increased lipid accumulation in the whole body and hepatopancreas in a dose-dependent manner. Crabs fed 13% lipid showed a significantly higher hepatosomatic index than those fed 7% lipid. The mRNA expressions of triacylglycerol lipase and intracellular lipase increased with the increase of α-LA concentration in crabs fed 7% lipid. No significant difference was found in the CPT-1 mRNA expression among all treatments. The α-LA supplementation at 1400 mg/kg significantly improved oxidative stress due to lipid accumulation in the hepatopancreas of crabs fed 7% lipid as indicated by the high activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and a low level of malondialdehyde. The diet with 13% lipid increased the lipid content in the hepatopancreas but suppressed glutathione peroxidase. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity increased with the increase of α-LA concentration in crabs fed 13% lipid. This study indicates that α-LA supplementation can improve growth performance and accelerate lipid accumulation in the hepatopancreas by increasing lipid utilization efficiency. Furthermore, α-LA can relieve hepatopancreas oxidative damage induced by lipid accumulation and improve the health of E. sinensis.