Background: A 4-d 70% energy restriction enhances gastrointestinal sensitivity to nutrients associated with enhanced energy-intake suppression by lipid. To our knowledge, it is unknown whether these changes occur with 30% energy restriction and are sustained in the longer term. Objectives: We hypothesized that 1) a 4-d 30% energy restriction would enhance effects of intraduodenal lipid on gastrointestinal motility, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake in lean and obese men and 2) a 12-wk energy restriction associated with weight loss would diminish effects of acute energy restriction on responses to lipid in in obese men. Design: Twelve obese males were studied before (day 0) and after 4 d (day 5), 4 wk (week 4), and 12 wk (week 12), and 12 lean males were studied before and after 4 d of consumption of a 30% energy-restricted diet. On each study day, antropyloroduodenal pressures, gut hormones, and appetite during a 120-min (2.86-kcal/min) intraduodenal lipid infusion and energy intake at a buffet lunch were measured. Results: On day 5, fasting cholecystokinin was less, and ghrelin was higher, in lean (P < 0.05) but not obese men, and lipid-stimulated cholecystokinin and peptide YY and the desire to eat were greater in both groups (P < 0.05), with no differences in energy intakes compared with on day 0. In obese men, a 12-wk energy restriction led to weight loss (9.7 ± 0.7 kg). Lipid-induced basal pyloric pressures (BPPs), peptide YY, and the desire to eat were greater (P < 0.05), whereas the amount eaten was less (P < 0.05), at weeks 4 and 12 compared with day 0. Conclusions: A 4-d 30% energy restriction modestly affects responses to intraduodenal lipid in health and obesity but not energy intake, whereas a 12-wk energy restriction, associated with weightloss, enhances lipid-induced BPP and peptide YY and reduces food intake, suggesting that energy restriction increases gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipid. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as 12609000943246.