OBJECTIVE To study whether the effects of intensive glycemic control on major vascular outcomes (a composite of major macrovascular and major microvascular events), all-cause mortality, and severe hypoglycemia events differ among participants with different levels of 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at baseline.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the effects of more intensive glycemic control in 11,071 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), without missing values, in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, using Cox models.
RESULTS During 5 years’ follow-up, intensive glycemic control reduced major vascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90 [95% CI 0.83–0.98]), with the major driver being a reduction in the development of macroalbuminuria. There was no evidence of differences in the effect, regardless of baseline ASCVD risk or HbA1c level (P for interaction = 0.29 and 0.94, respectively). Similarly, the beneficial effects of intensive glycemic control on all-cause mortality were not significantly different across baseline ASCVD risk (P = 0.15) or HbA1c levels (P = 0.87). The risks of severe hypoglycemic events were higher in the intensive glycemic control group compared with the standard glycemic control group (HR 1.85 [1.41–2.42]), with no significant heterogeneity across subgroups defined by ASCVD risk or HbA1c at baseline (P = 0.09 and 0.18, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS The major benefits for patients with T2D in ADVANCE did not substantially differ across levels of baseline ASCVD risk and HbA1c.