Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been widely studied due to its global distribution, slow degradation, high bioaccumulation and toxicological effects on vertebrates. However, the potential toxicity of PFOS to crustaceans is little known. The present study investigated the effects of PFOS on the immune responses and expression of immune-related genes in the Chinese mitten-handed crab Eriocheir sinensis. Crabs were exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/L of PFOS, and sampled on 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. The total hemocyte count and lysozyme activity in PFOS-treated crab were significantly lower than in the control. The exposure to 10 mg/L of PFOS led to a marked inhibition in phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. At other PFOS levels, phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase showed an initial increase and a subsequent decrease over time. The alkaline and acid phosphatase activities were stimulated in 10 mg/L PFOS until 21 days. The mRNA expression of immune related genes including hepatopancreas-specific C-type lectin and prophenoloxidase activating factors were up-regulated after the exposure to the concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/L of PFOS, while the expression of lysozyme gene was up-regulated only in the crab exposed to 0.1 mg/L PFOS. The results demonstrate that the high dose of PFOS leads to immune toxicity and the hepatopancreas is a major target organ for PFOS accumulation and immunotoxicity. Hemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase are useful biomarkers for the risk assessment of PFOS toxicity to crustaceans.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology and Pharmacology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jun 2015|
- Eriocheir sinensis
- Immune-related genes
- Immunity response
- Perfluorooctane sulfonate