Glucose in the glomerular ultrafiltrate is actively reabsorbed by sodium glucose transporters (SGLT) in the proximal tubule. The SGLT2 protein is a high capacity molecule responsible for the majority of glucose reuptake with pharmacological inhibition, resulting in the loss of about 80g of glucose in the urine each day. About a dozen inhibitors of SGLT2 have entered clinical development, and the first has recently been submitted for registration with the United States Food and Drug Administration. The rationale for the clinical evaluation of these agents is their beneficial effects on glycaemia, blood pressure and body weight. No adequately powered trial has yet determined the effects of an SGLT2 inhibitor on either macrovascular or microvascular outcomes, although a number of large-scale trials are now ongoing. Evidence thatwill define the overall balance of benefits and risks of this new drug class is anticipated within the next 5 years.