The effects of whole grain food consumption on energy and fiber intake and on blood pressure were investigated in a cohort study of women 70-80 years of age who volunteered to participate in a dietary protein intervention study. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Subjects were classified into three whole grain food consumption groups using tertile cut-off points: <47 g/day (low), 47-83 g/day (medium), and >83 g/day (high). At baseline, subjects with high and medium whole grain consumption had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (10 and 9 mmHg lower, respectively [P < 0.01]) compared with subjects with low whole grain consumption. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure dropped in all groups over the 1 year study period (baseline - year one) (P < 0.05); however, whole grain consumption was not related to systolic or diastolic pressure at year one. Consumption of whole grains and cereals, in general, was positively correlated with both energy and fiber intake without corresponding increases in body weight.