Efficiency Maps of Electrical Machines: A Tutorial Review

Emad Roshandel, Amin Mahmoudi, Solmaz Kahourzade, Wen L. Soong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Efficiency maps (EffMs) illustrate the maximum efficiencies of electric machines over a range of torque-speed operating points. This article reviews the available techniques for efficiency map calculation and gives a general understanding of EffM modelling and interpretation for traction motors. It shows the accuracy versus calculation effort trade-off for different methods. The process of efficiency map calculation for sample induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous machines is explained. Calculation of EffMs using commercial software is also covered. Finally, possible future research opportunities in this field are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1263-1272
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number2
Early online date28 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • Australia
  • driving cycles
  • efficiency maps
  • electric machines
  • Equivalent circuits
  • Induction motors
  • Integrated circuit modeling
  • Iron
  • machine loss
  • Stator windings
  • Torque
  • torque speed envelope


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