Efflux Pump Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance by Staphylococci in Health-Related Environments: Challenges and the Quest for Inhibition

Abolfazl Dashtbani-Roozbehani, Melissa H. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistance in staphylococcal bacteria is a major health threat worldwide due to significant morbidity and mortality resulting from their associated hospital-or community-acquired infections. Dramatic decrease in the discovery of new antibiotics from the pharmaceutical industry coupled with increased use of sanitisers and disinfectants due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic can further aggravate the problem of antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococci utilise multiple mechanisms to circumvent the effects of antimicrobials. One of these resistance mechanisms is the export of antimicrobial agents through the activity of membraneembedded multidrug efflux pump proteins. The use of efflux pump inhibitors in combination with currently approved antimicrobials is a promising strategy to potentiate their clinical efficacy against resistant strains of staphylococci, and simultaneously reduce the selection of resistant mutants. This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of staphylococcal efflux pumps, discusses their clinical impact, and summarises compounds found in the last decade from plant and synthetic origin that have the potential to be used as adjuvants to antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant staphylococci. Critically, future high-resolution structures of staphylococcal efflux pumps could aid in design and development of safer, more target-specific and highly potent efflux pump inhibitors to progress into clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1502
Number of pages32
JournalAntibiotics
Volume10
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps
  • Efflux pump inhibitor
  • Staphylococci

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