A newly developed groundwater and electrokinetic (EK) flow and reactive transport numerical model was applied to simulate electrokinetic in situ chemical oxidation (EK-ISCO) remediation. Scenario simulations that considered the oxidation of a typical organic contaminant (tetrachloroethene) by permanganate were used to gain a better understanding of the key processes and parameters that control remediation efficiency. In a first step a sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate a range of EK, hydraulic and engineering parameters on the performance of EK-ISCO. While all investigated parameters affected the remediation process to some extent, the duration and energy required for remediation were shown to be most dependent upon the applied voltage gradient, the natural oxidant demand and the concentration of the injected oxidant. Secondly, the efficacy of EK-induced oxidant transport was further examined for a heterogeneous aquifer system with random permeability fields. Oxidant migration under EK was slower in low-permeability media due to the increased oxidant consumption of competing reductants. Instead of injecting oxidant only at the cathode, locating injection wells between the electrodes greatly increased the contaminant degradation by decreasing the distance the amendment had to migrate before reaching the contaminant.
- In situ chemical oxidation
- Sensitivity analysis