Electronic textile-based electrocardiogram monitoring in cardiac patients: a scoping review

Meseret N. Teferra, Joyce S. Ramos, Constance Kourbelis, Peter Newman, Amanda Fleury, David Hobbs, Karen J. Reynolds, Robyn A. Clark

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this scoping review were to explore, organize and present the existing research literature on the use of electronic textile (e-textile)-based resting, signal-averaged, ambulatory or exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring to evaluate the application of e-textile technologies for ECG cardiac monitoring.

INTRODUCTION: E-textile-based ECG monitoring of cardiac patients offers a possible new alternative for in-hospital monitoring and post-discharge monitoring during cardiac rehabilitation.

INCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies that included patients (inpatients or outpatients) who qualified for cardiac rehabilitation programs or continuous ambulatory ECG monitoring were considered. The key concepts that were addressed included resting, signal-averaged, ambulatory or exercise ECG monitoring based on e-textile technologies or e-textile-based cardiac rehabilitation. Studies were excluded if they focused only on specific aspects of the e-textile ECG system rather than a complete ECG system.

METHODS: Research reports, dissertations or books that evaluated e-textile-based ECG monitoring of cardiac patients in a hospital or at home, written in English, and published between January 2000 and March 2018 were considered for inclusion. Published and unpublished literature was located through databases including Ovid Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), PubMed Central (PMC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Xplore), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Scopus, Expanded Academic ASAP, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, SPORTDiscus, and ENGINE-Australian Engineering Database (Informit). Two independent reviewers screened citations for inclusion while the third reviewer resolved any discrepancies. Meta-data from each study were extracted, and a narrative summary was used to present the results. Furthermore, 38 study authors were contacted to request missing or additional data as required, with 16 responding within eight weeks.

RESULTS: Of the 207 studies that were eligible for full-text review, only 8% (n = 17) were included in the final study. Eighty-eight percent (n = 15) of included studies were conducted with an adult population, and 11 studies reported an in-hospital application. Only three groups of researchers reported e-textile integration beyond the textile electrodes, mostly in the form of wiring and custom-made printed circuit boards. Eight studies utilized two ECG sensors, while single-lead ECG was the most common configuration, used in 10 studies. ECG result was the primary parameter reported across the included studies. Resting ECG was the most common form of ECG acquired (n = 10), followed by exercise ECG (n = 6) and ambulatory ECG (n = 5). Eight studies addressed the issue of power requirements, and seven studies used Bluetooth for wireless communication. The primary problem reported across all studies was noise from motion artifact.

CONCLUSIONS: The recent advances in signal quality and noise reduction for e-textile-based ECG applications are promising. However, the use of a 12-lead, personalized, home-based cardiac rehabilitation monitor system containing fully textile-integrated electronics with diagnostic capability is yet to be reported. Therefore, there is potential for future research in this area. Additionally, motion artifact continues to be a challenge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1958-1998
Number of pages41
JournalJBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • Cardiac patients
  • EGC monitoring
  • e-textile
  • Scoping review
  • Smart fabrics


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