EMG-informed neuromusculoskeletal models accurately predict knee loading measured using instrumented implants

Kieran James Bennett, Claudio Pizzolato, Saulo Martelli, Jasvir S. Bahl, Arjun Sivakumar, Gerald J. Atkins, Lucian Bogdan Solomon, Dominic Thewlis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Using a musculoskeletal modelling framework, we aimed to (1) estimate knee joint loading using static optimization (SO); (2) explore different calibration functions in electromyogram (EMG)-informed models used in estimating knee load; and (3) determine, when using an EMG-informed stochastic method, if the measured joint loadings are solutions to the muscle redundancy problem when investigating only the uncertainty in muscle forces. Methods: Musculoskeletal models for three individuals with instrumented knee replacements were generated. Muscle forces were calculated using SO, EMG-informed, and EMG-informed stochastic methods. Measured knee joint loads from the prostheses were compared to the SO and EMG-informed solutions. Root mean square error (RMSE) in joint load estimation was calculated, and the muscle force ranges were compared. Results: The RMSE ranged between 192-674 N, 152-487 N, and 7-108 N for the SO, the calibrated EMG-informed solution, and the best fit stochastic result, respectively. The stochastic method produced solution spaces encompassing the measured joint loading up to 98% of stance. Conclusion: Uncertainty in muscle forces can account for total knee loading and it is recommended that, where possible, EMG measurements should be included to estimate knee joint loading. Significance: This work shows that the inclusion of EMG-informed modelling allows for better estimation of knee joint loading when compared to SO.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2268-2275
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions On Biomedical Engineering
Issue number7
Early online date6 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Biological system modeling
  • Biomechanical simulation
  • Biomechanics
  • Electromyography
  • electromyography
  • Knee
  • Load modeling
  • Loading
  • Muscles
  • neuromusculoskeletal models
  • Stochastic processes


Dive into the research topics of 'EMG-informed neuromusculoskeletal models accurately predict knee loading measured using instrumented implants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this