EMI (English-medium instruction) in Singapore's major universities

Werner Botha, Kingsley Bolton, John Bacon-Shone

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In this article we report on the dynamics of English-medium instruction (EMI) in Singaporean higher education, where we describe the context of EMI with reference to the multilingual background and multilingual practices of university students in their educational as well as personal lives. Our study surveyed over one thousand students from Singapore's six main universities, where we investigated the multilingual backgrounds of students at these universities, their language practices, and their experience of EMI education. Whereas our previous research has focused on the language policies and practices in just one of Singapore's universities, this project surveyed language use in all six major universities. It is hoped that the report presented here will serve as a record of current practices, as well as a benchmark for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)447-464
Number of pages18
JournalWorld Englishes
Issue number3
Early online date28 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • English-medium instruction (EMI)
  • Singaporean higher education
  • Multilingual context
  • university students
  • language policies
  • language use


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