Second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory using the Resolutionof-the-Identity approximation (RI-MP2) is a state-of-The-Art approach to accurately estimate many-body electronic correlation effects. This is critical for predicting the physicochemical properties of complex molecular systems; however, the scale of these calculations is limited by their extremely high computational cost. In this paper, a novel many-GPU algorithm and implementation of a molecular-fragmentation-based RI-MP2 method are presented that enable correlated calculations on over 180,000 electrons and 45,000 atoms using up to the entire Summit supercomputer in 12 minutes. The implementation demonstrates remarkable speedups with respect to other current GPU and CPU codes, excellent strong scalability on Summit achieving 89.1% parallel efficiency on 4600 nodes, and shows nearly-ideal weak scaling up to 612 nodes. This work makes feasible ab initio correlated quantum chemistry calculations on significantly larger molecular scales than before on both large supercomputing systems and on commodity clusters, with a potential for major impact on progress in chemical, physical, biological and engineering sciences.