We report the presence of endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) in chicken peripheral nerve. The molecule has been detected with antibodies to mouse salivary gland NGF, using immunohistochemical and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Previous studies have shown that these antibodies inhibit the survival activity of extracts of chicken peripheral nerve. The NGF accumulated distal, but not proximal, to a ligature placed on a peripheral sympathetic nerve demonstrating that it was retrogradely transported. This transport was detected in intact nerve fibers as well as in nerves from which the peripheral target had been ablated 6 hr or 7 days previously. The results indicate that avian NGF is present in adult chicken peripheral nerves and that this molecule shares antigenic determinants with the mouse molecule. The results further demonstrate that regenerating neurons retrogradely transport NGF supplied by cells within the peripheral nerve (presumably Schwann). The possibility that these cells also provide NGF to intact neurons is discussed.