Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein gp350/gp220 association with cellular CD21 facilitates virion attachment to B lymphocytes. Membrane fusion requires the additional interaction between virion gp42 and cellular HLA-DR. This binding is thought to catalyze membrane fusion through a further association with the gp85-gp25 (gH-gL) complex. Cell lines expressing CD21 but lacking expression of HLA class II molecules are resistant to infection by a recombinant EBV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein. Surface expression of HLA-DR, HLA-DP, or HLA-DQ confers susceptibilitY to EBV infection on resistant cells that express CD21. Therefore, HLA-DP or HLA-DQ can substitute for HLA-DR and serve as a coreceptor in EBV entry.