The esophagus is a muscular tube that starts as the continuation of the pharynx and ends as the cardia of the stomach. When the head is in a normal anatomic position, the transition from pharynx to esophagus occurs at the lower border of the sixth cervical vertebra. Topographically this corresponds to the cricoid cartilage anteriorly and the palpable transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra laterally (Fig. 25-1). The esophagus is firmly attached at its upper end to the cricoid cartilage and at its lower end to the diaphragm; during swallowing, the proximal points of fixation move craniad the distance of one cervical vertebral body.
|Title of host publication||Schwartz's Principles of Surgery|
|Editors||F. Charles Brunicardi, Dana K Andersen, Timothy R Billiar, David L Dunn, Lillian S Kao, John G Hunter, Jeffrey B Matthews, Raphael E Pollock|
|Place of Publication||USA|
|Publisher||McGraw Hill Education|
|ISBN (Print)||9781259835353, 978-1-259-83536-0, 978-1-259-83534-6|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|